Comparison of Three Fixation Methods for Femoral Neck Fracture in Young Adults: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
Femoral neck fractures in young patients are usually caused by a high-energy trauma, which results in a perpendicular fracture. Although efforts are focused on preserving the femoral head in young patients, vertical femoral neck fracture is a problematic orthopedic injury due to the domination of shear forces. Due to controversy regarding which fixation method is the best choice, the purpose of this study was to find the most stable fixation method for this kind of fracture. This study includes experimental testing on cadaveric bone samples and finite element analysis (FEA) for three fracture fixation techniques, namely cannulated screws (CSs), dynamic hip screw with derotational screw (DHS + DS), and proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP). Experimental results of bone-implant stiffness, average femoral head displacement, failure load, failure energy, and relative position of the fractured fragments indicate that DHS + DS offers the strongest structure for stabilizing a vertical femoral neck fracture. Experimental data and FEA results both indicate that under static loading, the DHS + DS method of fixation produces the lowest femoral head displacement and interfragmentary movement, followed by PFLP and then CSs. The results of this research suggest that, based on the clinical assumption that a restricted weight-bearing regimen is recommended in the postoperative rehabilitation protocol, the DHS + DS method of fixation is a better choice compared to CSs and PFLP for a vertical femoral neck fracture fixation in young adults.